Class LongBigArrays
public final class LongBigArrays extends Object
WARNING: as of 8.3.0, many methods such as #length()
have been moved to BigArrays
, as they can be imported statically in a
more convenient way.
Note that BinIO
and
TextIO
contain several methods that make it
possible to load and save big arrays of primitive types as sequences of
elements in DataInput
format (i.e., not as objects) or as
sequences of lines of text.
 See Also:
BigArrays

Field Summary
Fields Modifier and Type Field Description static long[][]
DEFAULT_EMPTY_BIG_ARRAY
A static, final, empty big array to be used as default big array in allocations.static long[][]
EMPTY_BIG_ARRAY
A static, final, empty big array.static AtomicLongArray[]
EMPTY_BIG_ATOMIC_ARRAY
A static, final, empty big atomic array.static Hash.Strategy
HASH_STRATEGY
A typespecific contentbased hash strategy for big arrays. 
Method Summary
Modifier and Type Method Description static void
add(long[][] array, long index, long incr)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long
binarySearch(long[][] a, long key)
Searches a big array for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.static long
binarySearch(long[][] a, long from, long to, long key)
Searches a range of the specified big array for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.static long
binarySearch(long[][] a, long from, long to, long key, LongComparator c)
Searches a range of the specified big array for the specified value using the binary search algorithm and a specified comparator.static long
binarySearch(long[][] a, long key, LongComparator c)
Searches a big array for the specified value using the binary search algorithm and a specified comparator.static long[][]
copy(long[][] array)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long[][]
copy(long[][] array, long offset, long length)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static void
copy(long[][] srcArray, long srcPos, long[][] destArray, long destPos, long length)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static void
copyFromBig(long[][] srcArray, long srcPos, long[] destArray, int destPos, int length)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static void
copyToBig(long[] srcArray, int srcPos, long[][] destArray, long destPos, long length)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static void
decr(long[][] array, long index)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long[][]
ensureCapacity(long[][] array, long length)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long[][]
ensureCapacity(long[][] array, long length, long preserve)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static void
ensureFromTo(long[][] a, long from, long to)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static void
ensureOffsetLength(long[][] a, long offset, long length)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static void
ensureSameLength(long[][] a, long[][] b)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static boolean
equals(long[][] a1, long[][] a2)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static void
fill(long[][] array, long value)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static void
fill(long[][] array, long from, long to, long value)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long[][]
forceCapacity(long[][] array, long length, long preserve)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long
get(long[][] array, long index)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long[][]
grow(long[][] array, long length)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long[][]
grow(long[][] array, long length, long preserve)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static void
incr(long[][] array, long index)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long
length(long[][] array)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static void
mul(long[][] array, long index, long factor)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long[][]
newBigArray(long length)
Creates a new big array.static AtomicLongArray[]
newBigAtomicArray(long length)
Creates a new big atomic array.static void
parallelQuickSort(long[][] x)
Sorts a big array according to the natural ascending order using a parallel quicksort.static void
parallelQuickSort(long[][] x, long from, long to)
Sorts the specified range of elements according to the natural ascending order using a parallel quicksort.static void
parallelQuickSort(long[][] x, long from, long to, LongComparator comp)
Sorts the specified range of elements according to the order induced by the specified comparator using a parallel quicksort.static void
parallelQuickSort(long[][] x, LongComparator comp)
Sorts a big array according to the order induced by the specified comparator using a parallel quicksort.static void
quickSort(long[][] x)
Sorts the specified big array according to the natural ascending order using quicksort.static void
quickSort(long[][] x, long from, long to)
Sorts the specified range of elements according to the natural ascending order using quicksort.static void
quickSort(long[][] x, long from, long to, LongComparator comp)
Sorts the specified range of elements according to the order induced by the specified comparator using quicksort.static void
quickSort(long[][] x, LongComparator comp)
Sorts the specified big array according to the order induced by the specified comparator using quicksort.static void
radixSort(long[][] a)
Sorts the specified big array using radix sort.static void
radixSort(long[][] a, long[][] b)
Sorts the specified pair of big arrays lexicographically using radix sort.static void
radixSort(long[][] a, long[][] b, long from, long to)
Sorts the specified pair of big arrays lexicographically using radix sort.static void
radixSort(long[][] a, long from, long to)
Sorts the specified big array using radix sort.static void
radixSortIndirect(long[][] perm, long[][] a, long[][] b, boolean stable)
Sorts the specified pair of arrays lexicographically using indirect radix sort.static void
radixSortIndirect(long[][] perm, long[][] a, long[][] b, long from, long to, boolean stable)
Sorts the specified pair of arrays lexicographically using indirect radix sort.static void
set(long[][] array, long index, long value)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long[][]
setLength(long[][] array, long length)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long[][]
shuffle(long[][] a, long from, long to, Random random)
Shuffles the specified big array fragment using the specified pseudorandom number generator.static long[][]
shuffle(long[][] a, Random random)
Shuffles the specified big array using the specified pseudorandom number generator.static void
swap(long[][] array, long first, long second)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static String
toString(long[][] a)
Deprecated.static long[][]
trim(long[][] array, long length)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.static long[][]
wrap(long[] array)
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.

Field Details

EMPTY_BIG_ARRAY
public static final long[][] EMPTY_BIG_ARRAYA static, final, empty big array. 
DEFAULT_EMPTY_BIG_ARRAY
public static final long[][] DEFAULT_EMPTY_BIG_ARRAYA static, final, empty big array to be used as default big array in allocations. An object distinct fromEMPTY_BIG_ARRAY
makes it possible to have different behaviors depending on whether the user required an empty allocation, or we are just lazily delaying allocation. See Also:
ArrayList

EMPTY_BIG_ATOMIC_ARRAY
A static, final, empty big atomic array. 
HASH_STRATEGY
A typespecific contentbased hash strategy for big arrays.This hash strategy may be used in custom hash collections whenever keys are big arrays, and they must be considered equal by content. This strategy will handle
null
correctly, and it is serializable.


Method Details

get
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Returns the element of the given big array of specified index. Parameters:
array
 a big array.index
 a position in the big array. Returns:
 the element of the big array at the specified position.

set
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Sets the element of the given big array of specified index. Parameters:
array
 a big array.index
 a position in the big array.value
 the new value for the array element at the specified position.

swap
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Swaps the element of the given big array of specified indices. Parameters:
array
 a big array.first
 a position in the big array.second
 a position in the big array.

add
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Adds the specified increment the element of the given big array of specified index. Parameters:
array
 a big array.index
 a position in the big array.incr
 the increment

mul
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Multiplies by the specified factor the element of the given big array of specified index. Parameters:
array
 a big array.index
 a position in the big array.factor
 the factor

incr
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Increments the element of the given big array of specified index. Parameters:
array
 a big array.index
 a position in the big array.

decr
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Decrements the element of the given big array of specified index. Parameters:
array
 a big array.index
 a position in the big array.

length
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Returns the length of the given big array. Parameters:
array
 a big array. Returns:
 the length of the given big array.

copy
@Deprecated public static void copy(long[][] srcArray, long srcPos, long[][] destArray, long destPos, long length)Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Copies a big array from the specified source big array, beginning at the specified position, to the specified position of the destination big array. Handles correctly overlapping regions of the same big array. Parameters:
srcArray
 the source big array.srcPos
 the starting position in the source big array.destArray
 the destination big array.destPos
 the starting position in the destination data.length
 the number of elements to be copied.

copyFromBig
@Deprecated public static void copyFromBig(long[][] srcArray, long srcPos, long[] destArray, int destPos, int length)Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Copies a big array from the specified source big array, beginning at the specified position, to the specified position of the destination array. Parameters:
srcArray
 the source big array.srcPos
 the starting position in the source big array.destArray
 the destination array.destPos
 the starting position in the destination data.length
 the number of elements to be copied.

copyToBig
@Deprecated public static void copyToBig(long[] srcArray, int srcPos, long[][] destArray, long destPos, long length)Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Copies an array from the specified source array, beginning at the specified position, to the specified position of the destination big array. Parameters:
srcArray
 the source array.srcPos
 the starting position in the source array.destArray
 the destination big array.destPos
 the starting position in the destination data.length
 the number of elements to be copied.

newBigArray
public static long[][] newBigArray(long length)Creates a new big array. Parameters:
length
 the length of the new big array. Returns:
 a new big array of given length.

newBigAtomicArray
Creates a new big atomic array. Parameters:
length
 the length of the new big array. Returns:
 a new big atomic array of given length.

wrap
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Turns a standard array into a big array.Note that the returned big array might contain as a segment the original array.
 Parameters:
array
 an array. Returns:
 a new big array with the same length and content of
array
.

ensureCapacity
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Ensures that a big array can contain the given number of entries.If you cannot foresee whether this big array will need again to be enlarged, you should probably use
grow()
instead.Warning: the returned array might use part of the segments of the original array, which must be considered readonly after calling this method.
 Parameters:
array
 a big array.length
 the new minimum length for this big array. Returns:
array
, if it containslength
entries or more; otherwise, a big array withlength
entries whose firstlength(array)
entries are the same as those ofarray
.

forceCapacity
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Forces a big array to contain the given number of entries, preserving just a part of the big array.Warning: the returned array might use part of the segments of the original array, which must be considered readonly after calling this method.
 Parameters:
array
 a big array.length
 the new minimum length for this big array.preserve
 the number of elements of the big array that must be preserved in case a new allocation is necessary. Returns:
 a big array with
length
entries whose firstpreserve
entries are the same as those ofarray
.

ensureCapacity
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Ensures that a big array can contain the given number of entries, preserving just a part of the big array.Warning: the returned array might use part of the segments of the original array, which must be considered readonly after calling this method.
 Parameters:
array
 a big array.length
 the new minimum length for this big array.preserve
 the number of elements of the big array that must be preserved in case a new allocation is necessary. Returns:
array
, if it can containlength
entries or more; otherwise, a big array withlength
entries whose firstpreserve
entries are the same as those ofarray
.

grow
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Grows the given big array to the maximum between the given length and the current length increased by 50%, provided that the given length is larger than the current length.If you want complete control on the big array growth, you should probably use
ensureCapacity()
instead.Warning: the returned array might use part of the segments of the original array, which must be considered readonly after calling this method.
 Parameters:
array
 a big array.length
 the new minimum length for this big array. Returns:
array
, if it can containlength
entries; otherwise, a big array with max(length
,length(array)
/φ) entries whose firstlength(array)
entries are the same as those ofarray
.

grow
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Grows the given big array to the maximum between the given length and the current length increased by 50%, provided that the given length is larger than the current length, preserving just a part of the big array.If you want complete control on the big array growth, you should probably use
ensureCapacity()
instead.Warning: the returned array might use part of the segments of the original array, which must be considered readonly after calling this method.
 Parameters:
array
 a big array.length
 the new minimum length for this big array.preserve
 the number of elements of the big array that must be preserved in case a new allocation is necessary. Returns:
array
, if it can containlength
entries; otherwise, a big array with max(length
,length(array)
/φ) entries whose firstpreserve
entries are the same as those ofarray
.

trim
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Trims the given big array to the given length.Warning: the returned array might use part of the segments of the original array, which must be considered readonly after calling this method.
 Parameters:
array
 a big array.length
 the new maximum length for the big array. Returns:
array
, if it containslength
entries or less; otherwise, a big array withlength
entries whose entries are the same as the firstlength
entries ofarray
.

setLength
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Sets the length of the given big array.Warning: the returned array might use part of the segments of the original array, which must be considered readonly after calling this method.
 Parameters:
array
 a big array.length
 the new length for the big array. Returns:
array
, if it contains exactlylength
entries; otherwise, if it contains more thanlength
entries, a big array withlength
entries whose entries are the same as the firstlength
entries ofarray
; otherwise, a big array withlength
entries whose firstlength(array)
entries are the same as those ofarray
.

copy
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Returns a copy of a portion of a big array. Parameters:
array
 a big array.offset
 the first element to copy.length
 the number of elements to copy. Returns:
 a new big array containing
length
elements ofarray
starting atoffset
.

copy
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Returns a copy of a big array. Parameters:
array
 a big array. Returns:
 a copy of
array
.

fill
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Fills the given big array with the given value.This method uses a backward loop. It is significantly faster than the corresponding method in
Arrays
. Parameters:
array
 a big array.value
 the new value for all elements of the big array.

fill
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Fills a portion of the given big array with the given value.If possible (i.e.,
from
is 0) this method uses a backward loop. In this case, it is significantly faster than the corresponding method inArrays
. Parameters:
array
 a big array.from
 the starting index of the portion to fill.to
 the end index of the portion to fill.value
 the new value for all elements of the specified portion of the big array.

equals
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Returns true if the two big arrays are elementwise equal.This method uses a backward loop. It is significantly faster than the corresponding method in
Arrays
. Parameters:
a1
 a big array.a2
 another big array. Returns:
 true if the two big arrays are of the same length, and their elements are equal.

toString
Deprecated. 
ensureFromTo
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Ensures that a range given by its first (inclusive) and last (exclusive) elements fits a big array.This method may be used whenever a big array range check is needed.
 Parameters:
a
 a big array.from
 a start index (inclusive).to
 an end index (inclusive). Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 iffrom
is greater thanto
.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 iffrom
orto
are greater than the big array length or negative.

ensureOffsetLength
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Ensures that a range given by an offset and a length fits a big array.This method may be used whenever a big array range check is needed.
 Parameters:
a
 a big array.offset
 a start index.length
 a length (the number of elements in the range). Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 iflength
is negative.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 ifoffset
is negative oroffset
+length
is greater than the big array length.

ensureSameLength
Deprecated.Please use the version inBigArrays
.Ensures that two big arrays are of the same length. Parameters:
a
 a big array.b
 another big array. Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if the two argument arrays are not of the same length.

quickSort
Sorts the specified range of elements according to the order induced by the specified comparator using quicksort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned quicksort adapted from Jon L. Bentley and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering a Sort Function”, Software: Practice and Experience, 23(11), pages 1249−1265, 1993.
 Parameters:
x
 the big array to be sorted.from
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be sorted.to
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted.comp
 the comparator to determine the sorting order.

quickSort
Sorts the specified big array according to the order induced by the specified comparator using quicksort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned quicksort adapted from Jon L. Bentley and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering a Sort Function”, Software: Practice and Experience, 23(11), pages 1249−1265, 1993.
 Parameters:
x
 the big array to be sorted.comp
 the comparator to determine the sorting order.

quickSort
public static void quickSort(long[][] x, long from, long to)Sorts the specified range of elements according to the natural ascending order using quicksort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned quicksort adapted from Jon L. Bentley and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering a Sort Function”, Software: Practice and Experience, 23(11), pages 1249−1265, 1993.
 Parameters:
x
 the big array to be sorted.from
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be sorted.to
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted.

quickSort
public static void quickSort(long[][] x)Sorts the specified big array according to the natural ascending order using quicksort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned quicksort adapted from Jon L. Bentley and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering a Sort Function”, Software: Practice and Experience, 23(11), pages 1249−1265, 1993.
 Parameters:
x
 the big array to be sorted.

parallelQuickSort
public static void parallelQuickSort(long[][] x, long from, long to)Sorts the specified range of elements according to the natural ascending order using a parallel quicksort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned quicksort adapted from Jon L. Bentley and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering a Sort Function”, Software: Practice and Experience, 23(11), pages 1249−1265, 1993.
This implementation uses a
ForkJoinPool
executor service withRuntime.availableProcessors()
parallel threads. Parameters:
x
 the big array to be sorted.from
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be sorted.to
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted.

parallelQuickSort
public static void parallelQuickSort(long[][] x)Sorts a big array according to the natural ascending order using a parallel quicksort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned quicksort adapted from Jon L. Bentley and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering a Sort Function”, Software: Practice and Experience, 23(11), pages 1249−1265, 1993.
This implementation uses a
ForkJoinPool
executor service withRuntime.availableProcessors()
parallel threads. Parameters:
x
 the big array to be sorted.

parallelQuickSort
Sorts the specified range of elements according to the order induced by the specified comparator using a parallel quicksort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned quicksort adapted from Jon L. Bentley and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering a Sort Function”, Software: Practice and Experience, 23(11), pages 1249−1265, 1993.
This implementation uses a
ForkJoinPool
executor service withRuntime.availableProcessors()
parallel threads. Parameters:
x
 the big array to be sorted.from
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be sorted.to
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted.comp
 the comparator to determine the sorting order.

parallelQuickSort
Sorts a big array according to the order induced by the specified comparator using a parallel quicksort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned quicksort adapted from Jon L. Bentley and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering a Sort Function”, Software: Practice and Experience, 23(11), pages 1249−1265, 1993.
This implementation uses a
ForkJoinPool
executor service withRuntime.availableProcessors()
parallel threads. Parameters:
x
 the big array to be sorted.comp
 the comparator to determine the sorting order.

binarySearch
public static long binarySearch(long[][] a, long from, long to, long key)Searches a range of the specified big array for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. The range must be sorted prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which one will be found. Parameters:
a
 the big array to be searched.from
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be searched.to
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searched.key
 the value to be searched for. Returns:
 index of the search key, if it is contained in the big array;
otherwise,
((insertion point)  1)
. The insertion point is defined as the the point at which the value would be inserted into the big array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or the length of the big array, if all elements in the big array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found.  See Also:
Arrays

binarySearch
public static long binarySearch(long[][] a, long key)Searches a big array for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. The range must be sorted prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which one will be found. Parameters:
a
 the big array to be searched.key
 the value to be searched for. Returns:
 index of the search key, if it is contained in the big array;
otherwise,
((insertion point)  1)
. The insertion point is defined as the the point at which the value would be inserted into the big array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or the length of the big array, if all elements in the big array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found.  See Also:
Arrays

binarySearch
Searches a range of the specified big array for the specified value using the binary search algorithm and a specified comparator. The range must be sorted following the comparator prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which one will be found. Parameters:
a
 the big array to be searched.from
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be searched.to
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searched.key
 the value to be searched for.c
 a comparator. Returns:
 index of the search key, if it is contained in the big array;
otherwise,
((insertion point)  1)
. The insertion point is defined as the the point at which the value would be inserted into the big array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or the length of the big array, if all elements in the big array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found.  See Also:
Arrays

binarySearch
Searches a big array for the specified value using the binary search algorithm and a specified comparator. The range must be sorted following the comparator prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which one will be found. Parameters:
a
 the big array to be searched.key
 the value to be searched for.c
 a comparator. Returns:
 index of the search key, if it is contained in the big array;
otherwise,
((insertion point)  1)
. The insertion point is defined as the the point at which the value would be inserted into the big array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or the length of the big array, if all elements in the big array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found.  See Also:
Arrays

radixSort
public static void radixSort(long[][] a)Sorts the specified big array using radix sort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned radix sort adapted from Peter M. McIlroy, Keith Bostic and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering radix sort”, Computing Systems, 6(1), pages 5−27 (1993), and further improved using the digitoracle idea described by Juha Kärkkäinen and Tommi Rantala in “Engineering radix sort for strings”, String Processing and Information Retrieval, 15th International Symposium, volume 5280 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 3−14, Springer (2008).
This implementation is significantly faster than quicksort already at small sizes (say, more than 10000 elements), but it can only sort in ascending order. It will allocate a support array of bytes with the same number of elements as the array to be sorted.
 Parameters:
a
 the big array to be sorted.

radixSort
public static void radixSort(long[][] a, long from, long to)Sorts the specified big array using radix sort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned radix sort adapted from Peter M. McIlroy, Keith Bostic and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering radix sort”, Computing Systems, 6(1), pages 5−27 (1993), and further improved using the digitoracle idea described by Juha Kärkkäinen and Tommi Rantala in “Engineering radix sort for strings”, String Processing and Information Retrieval, 15th International Symposium, volume 5280 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 3−14, Springer (2008).
This implementation is significantly faster than quicksort already at small sizes (say, more than 10000 elements), but it can only sort in ascending order. It will allocate a support array of bytes with the same number of elements as the array to be sorted.
 Parameters:
a
 the big array to be sorted.from
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be sorted.to
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted.

radixSort
public static void radixSort(long[][] a, long[][] b)Sorts the specified pair of big arrays lexicographically using radix sort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned radix sort adapted from Peter M. McIlroy, Keith Bostic and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering radix sort”, Computing Systems, 6(1), pages 5−27 (1993), and further improved using the digitoracle idea described by Juha Kärkkäinen and Tommi Rantala in “Engineering radix sort for strings”, String Processing and Information Retrieval, 15th International Symposium, volume 5280 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 3−14, Springer (2008).
This method implements a lexicographical sorting of the arguments. Pairs of elements in the same position in the two provided arrays will be considered a single key, and permuted accordingly. In the end, either
a[i] < a[i + 1]
ora[i] == a[i + 1]
andb[i] <= b[i + 1]
.This implementation is significantly faster than quicksort already at small sizes (say, more than 10000 elements), but it can only sort in ascending order. It will allocate a support array of bytes with the same number of elements as the arrays to be sorted.
 Parameters:
a
 the first big array to be sorted.b
 the second big array to be sorted.

radixSort
public static void radixSort(long[][] a, long[][] b, long from, long to)Sorts the specified pair of big arrays lexicographically using radix sort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned radix sort adapted from Peter M. McIlroy, Keith Bostic and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering radix sort”, Computing Systems, 6(1), pages 5−27 (1993), and further improved using the digitoracle idea described by Juha Kärkkäinen and Tommi Rantala in “Engineering radix sort for strings”, String Processing and Information Retrieval, 15th International Symposium, volume 5280 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 3−14, Springer (2008).
This method implements a lexicographical sorting of the arguments. Pairs of elements in the same position in the two provided arrays will be considered a single key, and permuted accordingly. In the end, either
a[i] < a[i + 1]
ora[i] == a[i + 1]
andb[i] <= b[i + 1]
.This implementation is significantly faster than quicksort already at small sizes (say, more than 10000 elements), but it can only sort in ascending order. It will allocate a support array of bytes with the same number of elements as the arrays to be sorted.
 Parameters:
a
 the first big array to be sorted.b
 the second big array to be sorted.from
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be sorted.to
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted.

radixSortIndirect
public static void radixSortIndirect(long[][] perm, long[][] a, long[][] b, boolean stable)Sorts the specified pair of arrays lexicographically using indirect radix sort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned radix sort adapted from Peter M. McIlroy, Keith Bostic and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering radix sort”, Computing Systems, 6(1), pages 5−27 (1993).
This method implement an indirect sort. The elements of
perm
(which must be exactly the numbers in the interval[0..length(perm))
) will be permuted so thata[perm[i]] ≤ a[perm[i + 1]]
ora[perm[i]] == a[perm[i + 1]]
andb[perm[i]] ≤ b[perm[i + 1]]
.This implementation will allocate, in the stable case, a further support array as large as
perm
(note that the stable version is slightly faster). Parameters:
perm
 a permutation array indexinga
.a
 the array to be sorted.b
 the second array to be sorted.stable
 whether the sorting algorithm should be stable.

radixSortIndirect
public static void radixSortIndirect(long[][] perm, long[][] a, long[][] b, long from, long to, boolean stable)Sorts the specified pair of arrays lexicographically using indirect radix sort.The sorting algorithm is a tuned radix sort adapted from Peter M. McIlroy, Keith Bostic and M. Douglas McIlroy, “Engineering radix sort”, Computing Systems, 6(1), pages 5−27 (1993).
This method implement an indirect sort. The elements of
perm
(which must be exactly the numbers in the interval[0..length(perm))
) will be permuted so thata[perm[i]] ≤ a[perm[i + 1]]
ora[perm[i]] == a[perm[i + 1]]
andb[perm[i]] ≤ b[perm[i + 1]]
.This implementation will allocate, in the stable case, a further support array as large as
perm
(note that the stable version is slightly faster). Parameters:
perm
 a permutation array indexinga
.a
 the array to be sorted.b
 the second array to be sorted.from
 the index of the first element ofperm
(inclusive) to be permuted.to
 the index of the last element ofperm
(exclusive) to be permuted.stable
 whether the sorting algorithm should be stable.

shuffle
Shuffles the specified big array fragment using the specified pseudorandom number generator. Parameters:
a
 the big array to be shuffled.from
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be shuffled.to
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be shuffled.random
 a pseudorandom number generator. Returns:
a
.

shuffle
Shuffles the specified big array using the specified pseudorandom number generator. Parameters:
a
 the big array to be shuffled.random
 a pseudorandom number generator. Returns:
a
.
